Adipose Derived Stem Cells:
Adipose derived stem cells are obtained from a sample of human abdominal fat tissue. The cells themselves are not fat. They are encased in and surrounded by fat tissue. Once the fat sample has been obtained, a special enzyme is used to “melt-away” the fat, and leave only something called SVF (short for Stromal Vascular Fraction), which contains stem cells, accessory cells and growth factors.
This SVF is washed and purified in the lab, and is then isolated for infusion or injection.
This method provides a much larger number of stem cells than bone marrow or peripheral blood, making it more efficient and highly effective in a variety of conditions, especially those that require creation of new blood vessels, and repairing tissues damaged due to lack of oxygenation.
Wharton’s Jelly Derived Stem cells:
Unlike Fat, Bone marrow or other tissues that can be harvested for stem cell isolation, Wharton’s Jelly does not contain SVF. It is a gelatinous substance found in the umbilical chord, which separates maternal and fetal tissues, acting as a kind of “buffer” so that these tissues don’t come into direct contact with each other. This particular characteristic is the reason they became known as “universal donor cells”, since they are able to interact with any tissue, in any host, without causing any form of immune response.
Unlike cells obtained with SVF, stem cells in Wharton’s jelly are not found grouped with other cells types or blood products. They can be obtained in much larger numbers, and are already completely isolated, which means that you get stem cells exclusively.
The fact that they are obtained from umbilical chords, donated by pre-screened donors after their pregnancy has come to full-term, means that they are much easier to harvest, in much larger numbers, and without the need for a specific, invasive and painful procedure. It also means that because of the incredibly large number of cells that can be obtained, they can be cryo-preserved and stored at pre-determined dose sizes in individual containers for specific uses.